Saturday, August 17, 2019

Prison and the War on Drugs

UNIVERSITY OF PHOENIX Prison and The War on Drugs Week One Assignment CJA 234 [Type the author name] 10/4/2011 ? Prison and the War on Drugs. The war on drugs has been implemented for more than 30 years. Currently, there are close to a half million persons imprisoned on drug charges in this country. That is a tenfold increase over the 50,000 in 1980. (jrank. org, 2011) In the past few years, close to $40 billion has been spent annually fighting the war on drugs. As a result of the drastic increase in drug-related arrests and convictions, the United States currently has the largest prison system in the world. The majority of these are nonviolent criminals. The estimated prison population is around nine million. The United S accounts for approximately a fourth of this number. â€Å"With an incarceration rate of 724 per 100,000 inhabitants, the United States is the unchallenged world leader in both raw numbers and imprisonment per capita In terms of raw numbers, only China, with almost four times the population of the US, comes close with about 1. 5 million prisoners. Our closer competitors in incarceration rates are Russia (638 per 100,000) and Belarus (554)†, according to the British government's World Prison Population report (National Archives, 2003). Currently, the majority of police departments have paramilitary units, or SWAT teams, many of which have received their training from military instructors. One of the main duties of these teams is to carry out drug-related search warrants. Many of these are what are called ‘no-knock’ entries, which means the officers are authorized to enter the premises to be searched without any warning to the occupants. This is so the suspects do not have time to either flee or hide or destroy any evidence. The sudden increase of drug-related arrests and convictions is one of the main causes of the current prison overcrowding situation. The overcrowding makes it very difficult for the prison staff to handle the inmates and causes some of the conditions for inmates to be less than optimal. Although the incarceration rates for crimes such as murder, robbery, and burglary have remained steady during this time, the rates for drug-related crimes have steadily risen. Currently, more than half of the prisoners in federal prison federal are there because of drug possession or drug use. This has caused the federal prison system to be much overloaded. State prisons are overcrowded as well, but because many drug charges are federal offenses, they are not affected as much. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, people sentenced for drug crimes accounted for 21% of state prisoners and 55% of all federal prisoners (Stop The Drug War. org, 2005). Since the war on drugs started in the 1980’s, many of the inmates in the prison system are on violent drug users or small time traffickers who pose little danger to the community. Most of these inmates could benefit more from treatment and rehabilitation programs rather than incarceration. Although most prisons today have these sorts of programs, it is much more financially logical to have them attend these programs without needing to pay to house them at the same time. The state of Arizona has adopted a policy in which all addicted offenders from prisons to probation. This is the result of a referendum labeled the Drug Medicalization, Prevention and Control Act, which was approved by voters by a 65 to 35 percent margin (National Archives, 2003). An appeals court judge has pointed out that compared to the typical Arizona offender who now gets probation and treatment, â€Å"the same guy in the Federal system is going to get a mandatory five-year sentence† (Wren, 1999). This action has reduced the number of inmates and increased the number of drug offenders receiving treatment. Although Arizona is the only state that has an automatic diversion system, other states have started using drug courts. These divert nonviolent drug offenders into community-based treatment programs. Several states are also instituting early release programs for nonviolent offenders. A popular program, which has proved to be very effective, is shock incarceration, commonly known as Boot Camp. The inmates are subjected to a regimen very similar to military basic training. The combination of physical exercise along with education, and strict discipline as proved to have a higher success rate than other programs in the past. I believe that the war on drugs has resulted in more people being arrested and convicted on drug-related charges, but has not really done much to reduce the actual number of drug offenders. Merely incarcerating them is not the solution. I believe that diversion and intensive treatment and rehabilitation programs will go a lot farther that simply locking the offender s up. Without education and reconditioning, they will just go right back out and resume their former lifestyles and activities. Another factor is that while many of those convicted of drug-related offenses are nonviolent and often first time offenders, the same cannot be said of the other inmates they will be exposed to and influenced by during their incarceration. They may come out of prison in a worse state than when they entered it in that respect. In my opinion, intensive rehabilitation, treatment and supervision programs will have a much better, long lasting effect than incarceration for these types of offenders. References JRank. org, Prisons: Problems and Prospects – Prisons And The War On Drugs. , (2011). Retrieved from: http://law. jrank. rg/pages/1809/Prisons-Problems-Prospects-Prisons-war-on-drugs. html#ixzz1d4GEsfNO National Archives, World Prison Population List, fourth edition, (2003). Retrieved from: http://webarchive. nationalarchives. gov. uk/20110218135832/http://rds. homeoffice. gov. uk/rds/pdfs2/r188. pdf Stop The Drug War. org, Drug War Prisoner Count Over Half a Million, US Prison Population at All-Time High, (2005). Retrieved from: http://stopthedrugwar. org/chronicle-old/409/toohigh. shtml Wren, Christopher S. â€Å"Arizona Finds Cost Savings in Treating Drug Offenders: Probation Program, not Prisons, for Addicts. † New York Times, 21 April 1999.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Industry Profile of Bsnl

INDUSTRY PROFILE The telecom industry is one of the fastest growing industries in India. India has nearly 200 million telephone lines making it the third largest network in the world after China and USA. With a growth rate of 45%, Indian telecom industry has the highest growth rate in the world. History of Indian Telecommunications started in 1851 when the first operational land lines were laid by the government near Calcutta (seat of British power). Telephone services were introduced in India in 1881. In 1883 telephone services were merged with the postal system. Indian Radio Telegraph Company (IRT) was formed in 1923. After independence in 1947, all the foreign telecommunication companies were nationalized to form the Posts, Telephone and Telegraph (PTT), a monopoly run by the government's Ministry of Communications. Telecom sector was considered as a strategic service and the government considered it best to bring under state's control. The first wind of reforms in telecommunications sector began to flow in 1980s when the private sector was allowed in telecommunications equipment manufacturing. In 1985, Department of Telecommunications (DOT) was established. It was an exclusive provider of domestic and long- distance service that would be its own regulator (separate from the postal system). In 1986, two wholly government-owned companies were created: the Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited (VSNL) for international telecommunications and Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) for service in metropolitan areas. In 1990s, telecommunications sector benefited from the general opening up of the economy. Also, examples of telecom revolution in many other countries, which resulted in better quality of service and lower tariffs, led Indian policy makers to initiate a change process finally resulting in opening up of telecom services sector for the private sector. National Telecom Policy (NTP) 1994 was the first attempt to give a comprehensive roadmap for the Indian telecommunications sector. In 1997, Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) was created. TRAI was formed to act as a regulator to facilitate the growth of the telecom sector. New National Telecom Policy was adopted in 1999 and cellular services were also launched in the same year. Telecommunication sector in India can be divided into two segments: Fixed Service Provider (FSPs), and Cellular Services. Fixed line services consist of basic services, national or domestic long distance and international long distance services. The state operators (BSNL and MTNL), account for almost 90 per cent of revenues from basic services. Private sector services are presently available in selective urban areas, and collectively account for less than 5 per cent of subscriptions. However, private services focus on the business/corporate sector, and offer reliable, high- end services, such as leased lines, ISDN, closed user group and videoconferencing. Cellular services can be further divided into two categories: Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). The GSM sector is dominated by Airtel, Vodafone-Hutch, and Idea Cellular, while the CDMA sector is dominated by Reliance and Tata Indicom. Opening up of international and domestic long distance telephony Services are the major growth drivers for cellular industry. Cellular operators get substantial revenue from these services, and compensate them for reduction in tariffs on airtime, which along with rental was the main source of revenue. The reduction in tariffs for airtime, national long distance, international long distance, and handset prices has driven demand. AN ORGANISATIONAL PROFILE OF BSNL BSNL adopt latest digital switching technology like OCB, EWSD, AXE-10, FETEX, NEC, etc and widespread transmission network including SDH system up to 80 gbps web telephony, DIAS, VPN Broad brand and more than 400000 data customers, BSNL continues to serve this great nation. The responsibilities include improvement of the already impeccable quality of telecom services, expansion of telecom network, introduction of new telecom services in all villages and instilling confidence among its customers. BSNL has managed to shoulder these responsibilities remarkably and daftly. Today with over 45 million line capacity, 99. 9% exchange digital, nation wide Network management & surveillance system (NMSS) to control telecom traffic and over 400000 route kms of OFC network, Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd is a name to reckon with in the world of connectivity. Along with its vest customer base, BSNL’s standing. The telecom infrastructure alone is worth about Rs. 100000 crore. Turnover of Rs. 31400 crore. BSNL’s nation wide coverage and reach comprehensive range of telecom service and a penchant for excellence; and you have the ingredients for restructuring India for a bright future. Today BSNL is most trusted Telecom Brand of India. EVOLUTION OF BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED (BSNL) In India, the Posts and Telegraph Department originated in 1851 as a small part of the Public Works Department. Dr. William Shaughnessy pioneered telegraph and telephone in India. A regular separate department was opened around 1854 when telegraph facilities were thrown open to the public. The major milestones of the organization are as shown below. BSNL Corporate Organizational Structure {draw:frame} Vision, Mission & Objectives of BSNL VISION: To become the largest telecom Service Provider in Asia. MISSION : To provide world class State-of-art technology telecom services to its customers on demand at competitive prices. To Provide world class telecom infrastructure in its area of operation and to contribute to the growth of the country's economy. OBJECTIVES : To be a Lead Telecom Services Provider. To provide mobile telephone service of high quality and become no. 1 GSM operator in its area of operation. Contribute towards: National Plan Target of 500 million subscriber base for the country by December Broadband customers base of 20 million in the country by 2010 as per Broadband Policy 2004. Providing telephone connection in villages as per government policy. Implementation of Triple play as a regular commercial proposition.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

A social psychology final paper Essay

The movie I chose was Easy A because there are many psychological concepts this movie that relate to real-life events and it covers many theories we learned about in this class. Easy A was released in 2010 and directed by Will Gluck. It’s about a teenage girl named Olive who accidentally admits to her friend Rhi that she was having sexual relations with boys. She felt pressured into lying since her friend had already engaged in sexual acts with her boyfriend. A rumor then spread and many people in the school then ignored Olive because they thought what she did was an immoral act, but the guys started giving her more attention. I feel that this applies to many people in the world today and it is not just in this movie. Many social psychological concepts come up in this movie like: conformity, looking glass self, self-presentation/impression management, cognitive dissonance, situational constraint, majority influence, self discrepancy, and social comparison theory to name a few. In the beginning of the movie, Olive lies while talking to her best friend, Rhi and accidentally said that she had slept with someone when in fact she was still a virgin. Rhi was not a virgin anymore so Olive felt that she had to lie to conform to the norms of her friend. The Social Comparison Theory says that to interpret whether our performances are successes or failures, we must often compare them with our own goals and expectations or with the performances of others. (DeLamater, 85) This theory helps us have conformity with others just as Olive compared her views to her friend’s views and then ended up lying to receive positive reinforcement from her friend. Olive was using this theory when she looked at one of her peer’s actions and saw her own behavior as in opposition to the norm. Then because she probably felt inferior to Rhi, she changed her behavior. Had she not gone along and followed what her friend did and changed her behavior and looks she would have been violating this theory. The Asch Conformity Paradigm shows that within limits groups can pressure their members to change their judgments and conform with majority’s position  even when the position is obviously incorrect. (DeLamater, 287) This is shown in the movie when at first she is pressured and says she had sex with someone because her friend did and once she got that reputation the guys persuaded her to act like she was being promiscuous and having sexual relations with them. Even though she knew this was wrong she still decided to do it because the majority influence put more pressure on her to go with â€Å"having sexual relations† to help some of her friends (who were guys) become more popular. This resulted in cognitive dissonance, which is a theory, that deals with consistency between behaviors and attitudes and it occurs after a decision and when one acts inconsistent with their beliefs. (DeLamater, 153) This is shown when she makes the decision to lie to her friend and say she has had sex and afterwards she has second thoughts and starts to regret it because it went against her values that she held. Another outstanding concept in this movie was self-presentation/tactical impression management. Self- presentation and impression management are petty similar because they are both processes by which individuals attempt to control the impressions that other form of them during interaction. (DeLamater, 89-90). Throughout his movie Olive presents herself to everyone at her school as someone she was not. She was viewed as the new school slut and at first she had cognitive dissonance about this but she then started to embrace it. Olive began to look the part by wearing risquà © clothes like corsets and tight revealing shirts. She even sewed an â€Å"A† on her clothes as a reference that she was being portrayed as Hester Prynne, the main character from The Scarlett Letter who was deemed to be adulterous and that was very inappropriate at the time. By presenting herself this way she is going with Cooley’s Looking Glass Self that says we acquire our view of ourselves from the views of others. (DeLamater, 69) By all of her classmates viewing her as promiscuous she started to view herself as that and changed the way she usually dressed to be more racy. This change in style and behavior lead to self-discrepancy which is when a component of the actual self is the opposite of a component of the ideal self or the ought self. (DeLamater, 82) This is seen when Olive goes out in public and portrays herself in a different way than what she believes her actual self as because she is more concerned with social interactions than what her actual self believes. This whole change of self was to boost her self-esteem because she knew if she  didn’t change the way she looked to fit the part she would be embarrassed and humiliated and her self-esteem would be lowered. Throughout this movie you can she the deviant behavior and how she violates the social norms of people her age. She dressed scandalously, she acted promiscuous, she acted out and got a rebellious attitude. These rebellious things Olive was doing changed her behavior and labeled her as deviant. Deviance is not considered deviant until it is labeled as that. So in her case, Olive really considered bad until a group of people at her school started going against what she was doing and even her friend, Rhi joined in. they started protesting what she was doing. This created a lot of aggression and hate for one another and eventually lead to intergroup conflict. In intergroup conflict there is a situation in which groups take antagonistic actions toward one another in order to control some outcome important to them. (DeLamater, 326) The outcome this group sought was to get Olive and other girls to stop acting in this way and being immoral. They went around and held signs around the school protesting what they thought of her behavior. After this, Olive finally realized that she was doing wrong and she made a video telling the truth to everyone and saying that it was all just an act. Everyone then viewed her as a liar for what she did, but she didn’t care because she saw what she did was wrong and it was a better reputation than being called easy. The whole reason Olive took on the role of being the school slut was to keep the type of self-presentation and tactical impression management. I think a lot of people feel the same way today in our world because if because I agree in the looking-glass self because I agree that you think of yourself the same way your peers and significant others see you. So if someone sees you as fat, ugly, promiscuous, or something else I agree that you would start to internalize what they say and take on that role. By the end of the movie, Olive’s beliefs about herself had changed significantly. She knew throughout the movie that the person she was portraying was not truly herself and it did not go along with her values but she kept the role to keep up with the rumor that she had started. In this movie we could see how social rejection affects the way you view yourself and how you carry yourself. In Easy A there are issues that we discussed in Social Psychology and many of them can be applied to everyday experiences, you just have to be  aware of them because they are truly all around especially in movies today. References DeLamater, John D., and Daniel J. Meyers. Social Psychology. 7th ed. N.p.: Cengage Learning, May 20, 2010. Print. Devine, Z., Gluck, W., Emmrich, A., Johnson, M.B. (producers) & Gluck, W. (director). (2010). Easy A [motion picture]. United States: Sony Pictures.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Studying History Is a Waste of Time

Studying history is a waste of time because it prevents us from focusing on the challenges of the present. People live in this present. They plan for and worry about the future. History, however, is the study of the past. Given all the demands that press in from living in the present and anticipating what is yet to come, the speaker concludes that studying history is a waste of time because it distracts us from current challenges. However, I do not agree with this opinion because history is essential to individuals and our society. In the first place, history helps us understand people and societies. It offers a storehouse of information about how people and societies behave. Understanding the operations of people and societies is difficult, though a number of disciplines make the attempt. An exclusive reliance on current data would needlessly handicap our efforts. How can we evaluate war if the nation is at peace—unless we use historical materials? How can we understand genius, the influence of technological innovation, or the role that beliefs play in shaping family life, if we don’t use what we know about experiences in the past? Some social scientists attempt to formulate laws or theories about human behavior. But even these resources depend on historical information, except for limited, often artificial cases in which experiments can be devised to determine how people act. Major aspects of a society’s operation, like mass election, missionary activities, or military alliance, cannot be set up as precise experiments. Consequently, history must serve, however imperfectly, as our laboratory, and data from the past must be served as our most vital evidence in the unavoidable quest to figure out why our complex species behave as it does in societal settings. This fundamentally, is why we cannot stay away from history: it offers the only extensive evidential base for the contemplation and analysis of how societies function, and people need to have some sense of how societies function simply to run their lives. The second reason history is inescapable as a subject of serious study follows closely on the first. The past causes the present, and so the future. Any time we try to know why something happened—whether a shift in political party dominance in the American Congress, a major change in the teenage suicide rate, or a war in Iraq – we have to look for factors that took shape earlier. Sometimes, fairly recent history will suffice to explain a major development, but often we need to look further back to identify the causes of change. Only through studying history can we grasp how things change; only through history can we begin to comprehend the factors that cause change; and only through history can we understand what elements of an institution or a society persist despite change.

Memory, Thinking, and Intelligence UNIT 4 IP Essay

Memory, Thinking, and Intelligence UNIT 4 IP - Essay Example Although Spearman's Intelligence Model is a useful guide to the comprehension and measurement of the phenomenon of human intelligence, Gardner's Multiple Intelligence Model is both more precise and comprehensive, rendering it more consistent with psychology today. Spearman's Model of Intelligence maintains human intelligence to be comprised of two factors. These are General Intelligence, "g," and Specific Intelligence, "s" (Deary et al., 2004). General Intelligence refers to the general performance of individuals across a wide variety of tasks and is a measurement of their capacity to assimilate and utilise information/knowledge. Specific intelligence, on the other hand, refers to the performance of individuals on specific tasks, as in their gift, or lack thereof, in certain areas (Deary et al., 2004). Specific intelligence, as Spearman contends, and as may be inferred from both definitions, is partially predicated upon general intelligence, with the inference here being that general intelligence supports and promotes specific intelligence. Spearman established the correlation between the two through mathematical formulae (Deary et al., 2004). Gardner's Multiple Intelligence Models can be defined as a step beyond Spearman's Model of Intelligence and identified as a more evolved model. ... These are (1) verbal/linguistic; (2) musical; (3) logical/mathematical; (4) visual/spatial; (5) bodily kinaesthetic; (6) interpersonal; (7) intrapersonal; and (9) naturalist (Shearer, 2004; Jie-Qi Chen, 2004). A review of Gardner's different intelligence types indicates that his theory of intelligence is consistent with Spearman's insofar as he similarly identifies and defines specific intelligences. The primary difference between the two, and as attested to by Jie-Qi Chen (2004) is that Gardner specifies the different types of specific intelligence. It is, thus, that his model can be identified as a progression of the Spearman model. The value of Gardner's model of intelligence lies in the fact that it recognises the complexity of the human intelligence phenomenon, and concedes to the fact that an individual can display gifted intelligence levels in one area while exhibiting below average intelligence levels in another. Shearer draws attention to this particular aspect of the Gardner Multiple Intelligences Model Shearer (2004) and highlights the fact that it builds upon the Spearman one. Quite simply stated, the Gardner model focuses upon the factor of specific intelligences and identifies and defines them. More importantly, by defining and identifying the various types of specific intelligences, Gardner furnishes an explanation as to why some individuals are highly gifted in a particular skill set, such as mathematics, while being under-skilled in other areas, such as bodily kinaesthetic. In attempting to determine which of the two models is more consistent with the study of psychology today, one is bound to, as are Brten and Strms (2005) favour the Gardner model. As Brten and Strms (2005) contend, psychology has,

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

Business Environment 1 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Business Environment 1 - Essay Example At this juncture, strategic management is the only way in which a company can grow in the long run in this competitive field. The decisions should be undertaken by the firms only after analyzing the changes and conditions in the external business environment. It is true that without the help of efficient strategies, the firms cannot frame ways for further business development (Johnson and Scholes, 1993). This paper will explain the ways in which adoption of new strategies in the business of Oman Oil Company can help in mobilizing new resources and augmenting the overall level of its performance in the market. New strategies adopted in a firm would help it to improve its resource allocations, thereby reducing its cost of operations. It would facilitate the enhancement of the brand value of the company and improve its relations with its stakeholders. New innovations and creativities providing competitive advantages to the firm can also be introduced through implementation of new busine ss strategies. All of these advantages would help to forecast directions and also, increase the scope of business for an organization (Oxford Business Group, 2008). Formation of Strategies in the Company The business strategies of the company have helped in generating competitive advantages in the market. ... The mid-year rises in the prices of oil have significantly helped in the economic growth of Oman from 1999. The country had associated with the World Trade Organization in 2000 and since then, it has been promoting privatization in the economy. The Oman Oil Company has taken his opportunity to increase its business revenue and utilize the accumulated finances in various types of new private investment projects (making equity investments in new private companies). When the demand for oil in the world market had been increasing, the company had actively augmented its resources in business and expanded its scale of operations. The country of Oman also has plenty of natural oil reserves, thereby making extracting and producing oil more convenient. Any company engaging in the production of oil would not need to outsource it from any other economy. Thus, considering the external environment, the company has correctly selected its business investment segment. Competitive Advantages due to t he Strategies The competitive advantages gained by the company are the special features of its business that makes it unique in the whole market. Oman Oil Company with its effective business strategies has become successful in providing a greater value to the customers in the market. It is true that the price of different forms of energy manufactured by the company is high as their levels are regulated by the free forces of the market equilibrium (Porter, 1998). However, the higher prices are justified when the different beneficial services of the company are recognized (Hitt, Ireland and Hoskisson, 2009). Figure 2: Investments made by the Company (Source: Oman-Oil, 2012) With its effective business strategies, the company

Monday, August 12, 2019

Understanding the Concepts Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Understanding the Concepts - Essay Example However, this has affected customer loyalty and the company’s profits. In order to make profits and offer quality products and services, the company has sought assistance (a better pricing policy) from Prime Pricing Solutions. The development of a detailed pricing policy for Food and Beverage Company or operation comprises of five key stages. These stages include market feasibility study, basic price level and overall percentage gross profit, departmental gross and profit margins, differential profit margins, and other matters such as cover charges, and service charges. The stages will help the company in choosing the best price setting process to establish profitable and sustainable prices for the consumers. In designing the pricing policy for the company, the aforementioned steps will be followed as indicated. The first stage is market feasibility study. Because the company is already established, market feasibility study will not apply. However, there are important things that the company can note from the market feasibility study. First, the feasibility study generates a consumer profile; it describes in detail the consumer’s sex, socioeconomic status, age, nationality among other things. Secon d, it determines the consumer’s average spending power (Kotas, 1999). If the company did not perform a comprehensive market feasibility study, it will be important that it perform it to determine how they are going to price their products and services. It is important to note that the consumer profile has the most detailed and all-pervasive impact on all the food and beverage processes (Kotas, 1999). The second stage is the basic price level and the overall percentage gross profit. Based on the ASP (average spending power) and the consumer profile, the basic price level and the overall percentage of food and beverage gross profits can be determined. Therefore, the company can decide to charge a particular price for the foods and beverages. The